[The social contract] can be reduced to the following conditions: each of us pools our person and all his power under the supreme leadership of the general will; and in one body we receive each limb as an indivisible part of the whole.  In moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that appeared during the Enlightenment and generally concerns the legitimacy of the state`s authority over the individual.  The arguments of the social contract typically mean that individuals have expressly or implicitly agreed to give up some of their freedoms and submit to the authority (of the sovereign or the decision of a majority) in exchange for the protection of their remaining rights or the maintenance of social order.   The relationship between natural and legal rights is often a subject of social contract theory. The term has its name from The Social Contract, a 1762 book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau that discussed the concept. Although the forerunners of the theory of social contract can be found in antiquity, in Greek and stoic philosophy, and in Roman and canonical law, the apogee of the social contract was in the mid-17th century until the early 19th century, when it crystallized as the dominant doctrine of political legitimacy. What is the social contract? A citizen`s agreement with the government? No, it would just mean the continuation of [Roussau`s] idea. The social contract is a man`s agreement with man; An agreement that must follow through on what we call society. In this one, the notion of communist justice, first presented by the primitive fact of the exchange, … is replaced by that of fair distribution … These words, these treaties, communal justice, which are the language of the law, to translate into the language of the economy, and you have trade, that is, in their utmost importance, the action by which man and man declare themselves essentially producers, and abdicate all the advantages to govern each other. But the state system born of the social contract was also anarchic (without direction). Just as individuals were sovereign in the state of nature and thus let themselves be guided by their own interests and by the absence of rights, States now act in their own interest in competition.
Thus, like the state of nature, states had inevitably come into conflict because there was no sovereign who went beyond the (more powerful) state, capable of imposing on everyone a system such as the laws on social contracts by force. In fact, Hobbes`s work served as the basis for the theories of realism advanced by E. H. Carr and Hans Morgenthau. Hobbes wrote in Leviathan that people (« we ») need the « terrour of a certain power, » otherwise people will not respect the law of reciprocity, « (on the whole) do to others as we would. »  The theory of an implied social contract is that people, by remaining in the territory controlled by a society that normally has a government, give their consent to join that society and, if necessary, to be governed by their government. This approval gives legitimacy to such a government. A former critic of the theory of social contract was Roussau`s friend, the philosopher David Hume, who published an essay « Of Civil Liberty » in 1742. The second part of this essay entitled « Of the Original Contract » emphasizes that the notion of a « social contract » is a convenient fiction: the central assertion that the theory of social contract is close is that the law and the political order are not natural, but human creations.